Saturday, March 24, 2012

Mexico and its contrasts

The search for a national horoscope of any country is not an easy undertaking. The event representing the birth of the collective entity must be uncovered. For this an understanding of the people and their history is needed as well as the nature of the event itself. Beforehand, we must also have some idea of what natal potential the national horoscope has to truly match the key characteristics of the country. This is an especially tall order for a country like Mexico, that is rich in history, diverse in culture and encompasses a natural beauty. At the same time, Mexico exhibits high levels of prosperity in the face of rural poverty, urban squalor, crime and lawlessness. A horoscope has now come to light which seems to fit such diverse elements.

Mexico, officially the United Mexican States (UMS), is a federal constitutional republic in North America. The federation is made up of thirty-one states and a Federal District, the capital city.[1] Mexico is bordered to the north by the United States; on the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; on the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and on the east by the Gulf of Mexico. The land is huge in size, covering two million square kilometres or 760,000 square miles, making it the fifth largest country in the Americas. Mexico has a population of 112 million, making it the eleventh most populous country in the world. The national language is Spanish, which is also spoken by an additional four hundred million people around the world.

Historical summary
The history of Mexico is fascinating, revealing the variety of experiences. In Pre-Columbian Mesoamerica many cultures matured into advanced civilizations such as the Olmec, the Toltec, the Teotihuacan, the Zapotec, the Maya and the Aztec before the first contact with Europeans. Many of these civilizations were known for their mathematical and astronomical knowledge, while also having a reputation for brutality. In 1521, Spain conquered and colonized the territory from its base in México-Tenochtitlan, which was administered as the Viceroyalty of New Spain. Mexican culture reflects the complexity of the country's history through the blending of indigenous cultures and the culture of Spain, imparted during Spain's 300-year colonization of Mexico. Over this time, Spanish priests christened the population of the territory that would eventually become Mexico. The colony's independence is considered to have been achieved in 1821 but the actual state formation took several years to complete. Despite the efforts, the attempt to establish a strong republic failed and a subsequent civil war plagued the young nation. From this first decade, two polarized factions emerged, one federalist and populist, the other attempted to keep much of the old order of authroitarianism and church power established under colonialism. These factions were called the Liberals and the Conservatives, and they vied for power over the next century.[2] Not surprisingly, the post-independence period was characterized by economic instability. It was followed by the Mexican-American War, which resulted in territorial cession to the United States. A civil war took place, two empires came about followed by a domestic dictatorship. The latter led to the Mexican Revolution in 1910, which culminated with the promulgation of the 1917 Constitution and the emergence of the country's current political system. In the 1980s and 1990s, financial instability, linked to the peso (national currency), created problems for the economy. Elections held in July 2000 marked the first time that an opposition party won the presidency from the Institutional Revolutionary Party. The history suggests weakness involving the Sun in the nativity, but also some advantages to explain the continuity of the national configuration.

Process of state creation
Normally two phases are required for the formation of an independent and sovereign country. First there is the achievement of independence and, second, a state must be created, which embodies, governs and acts on behalf of the new national entity. Many astro
logers fail to recognise the second crucial step for nation building, the creation of the state itself. The adoption of a new constitution, the rules by which a state operates and the rights it endows its citizens with, while important in itself, is usually not a decisive event in the creation of a country. However, there are times when the state creation coincides with the adoption of a new constitution. This appears to have been the case in the creation of Mexico as a new state. Independence is usually declared and then achieved either peacefully or through violent struggle. In the case of the USA and UMS, this was clearly the case. Afterwards, the second step, the creation of a single national entity needs to involve formation of statehood. This is either done on the basis of a single population, typical for smaller countries, or one composed of several regional populations. These can either involve independent and sovereign states or regional formations based on indigenous populations. Such complexities typically attend the creation of larger countries. A key factor there is the creation of a union of states. This latter type of state formation is much more challenging, due to the problem of forming a cohesive national identity out of many separate ones. A common outlook on life is often a key ingredient in successful nation building. Religion has most often served this role. The above parameters were clearly in evidence for the creation of a largely Christian USA or a Christian UMS. Hindu India and muslim Pakistan and Bangladesh are countries that split up after a case of overreach in attempting to create a large national body across unbridgeable religious chasms. The largely Christian European Union is a case of another complex and halting national creation. That national building process is at risk of overreach in two dimensions. First, the tentative membership of a large Muslim nation, Turkey, can create divisions. Second, there are large differences in the outlook of member states on the need for a central sovereign state to wield power. Broadly speaking, the sentiment in the UK seems to be against each successive step towards the development of a fully fledged central state while the populations of e.g. Germany and France appear to be more open to further such integration in the EU.

Independence of Mexico
e push for independence of Mexico, then known as “New Spain“, from Spain is considered to have begun with the declaration of independence by Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, a Mexican priest, at 6:00 am on September 16, 1810. Hidalgo also called for a war against the Spanish colonial government, in what was known as the Grito de Dolores. A decade long war followed, the Mexican War of Independence. By early 1820 the independence movement was stalemated and close to collapse. It was at this point that General Augustin Iturbide promulgated the Plan of Iguala on February 24, 1821. He persuaded Vicente Guerrero to join his forces in support of the new conservative manifestation of the independence movement. A new army, the Army of the Three Guarantees, was then placed under Iturbide's command to enforce the Plan of Iguala. The plan was so broadly based that it pleased both patriots and loyalists. Iturbide's army was joined by rebel forces from all over Mexico. When the rebels' victory became certain, the viceroy resigned. On August 24, 1821, representatives of the Spanish crown and Iturbide signed the Treaty of Córdoba, which recognized Mexican independence under the terms of the Plan of Iguala. On September 27 the Army of the Three Guarantees entered Mexico City and the following day Iturbide proclaimed the independence of the Mexican Empire, as New Spain was to be henceforth called. The Treaty of Córdoba was not ratified by the Spanish Cortes.

State formation – a false start
Iturbide, a former royalist who ha
d become the leader for Mexican independence, included a special clause in the Treaty of Córdoba that left open the possibility for a native monarch to be appointed by a Mexican congress if a suitable member of the European royalty would not accept the Mexican crown. Already, half of the government employees were Iturbide's loyalists. On the night of the May 18, 1822, a mass demonstration led by the Regiment of Celaya, which Iturbide had commanded during the war, marched through the streets and demanded that their commander-in-chief accept the throne. The following day, the congress declared Iturbide emperor of Mexico. On May 21, 1822, it issued a decree confirming this appointment, which was officially a temporary measure until a European monarch could be found to rule Mexico. Iturbide's official title was "By Divine Providence and the National Congress, First Constitutional Emperor of Mexico". His coronation took place on July 21, 1822, in Mexico City. As factions in the Congress began to sharply criticise Iturbide and his policies, the emperor decided on October 31 to dissolve it and replace it with a sympathetic junta. The Mexican Empire was an odd construction. It did not have much popular support, especially after Iturbide dissolved Congress and took sole power. The self-proclaimed leader of the antimonarchists was the commander of Vera Cruz, Antonio Lopes de Santa Anna. Santa Anna was sent to Vera Cruz to drive out the last remaining Spanish troops in Mexico in the harbor fortress of San Juan de Ulloa. On Dec 1, 1822 Santa Anna proclaimed a republic in Vera Cruz. Soon, the old revolutionaries Vicenta Guerrero, Guadalupe Victoria and Nicolas Bravo had joined the movement. Iturbide appointed Jose Antonio Echaverri in charge of the imperial force to attack Santa Anna. Ironically, Echaverri proved as loyal to Iturbida as Iturbide had been to the Spanish viceroy. Echaverri joined Santa Annas' forces. On February 1, 1823, Santa Anna and the other members of his movement announced the Plan de Casa Mata.The key points of the plan were that Mexico would become a republic and Catholicism was to be the sole religion of Mexico. Iturbide would not be recognized as emperor. Realizing he no longer had support Iturbide felt he needed to reestablish the Congress. However, this was not enough to pacify the anti-monarchists. In a vain attempt to preserve order and keep the situation favorable to his supporters, he abdicated to the crown of the Empire on March 19, 1823. However, the Congress nullified the designation of Iturbide and therefore the recognition of the abdication. In doing so, it considered the coronation of Iturbide as a logical error in the independence and nation building. Iturbide was arrested in 1824 and executed.

State formation – take two
It is important that the reestablished Congress di
savowed all the efforts of Iturbide, its temporary leader, at nation building, including the Plan of Iguala as the basis for government and the Treaty of Córdoba, which Spain failed to ratify. The Congress thus decided to start over. In an evening session on March 31, 1823, the Congress appointed a triumvirate, the Supreme Executive Power, to govern Mexico and establish the country by convening the creation of a Federal Republic. The SEP was in effect from April 1, 1823 to October 10, 1824 and stepped down only after a constitution for the new United Mexican States had been accepted. Indeed, the political life of regional populations and their leaders was in a state of acute upheaval from March to August 1823, when 19 Provincial Deputations began to reconstitute themselves, either as independent or federal states. Indeedm some challenged the authority of the SEP and the Constituent Congress which formed it. At the same time, the SEP managed to maintain a central focus on bringing the new entity to life. Gradually, after its intentions to create a new state and then step down became trusted, its authority was accepted. Accordingly, several authors consider the Mexican nation to have been born at the outset of the First Republic. The challenge is to find the right event and time. There are numerous events for consideration when the actual birth of modern Mexico took place. The correct ascendant must then be chosen to reflect correctly the history and future of this country. One possible event is the appointment of the Supreme Executive Power on March 31, 1823 in Mexico city. In one document, the Decree. Appointment of the individuals who compose the executive. March 31, 1823. It says, “The sovereign Mexican constituent congress in session this day..." [3] The Supreme Executive Power was thus appointed by the Constituent Congress to exercise the Provisional Government of Mexico. In a Decree on the following day, April 1, 1823, it is stated "The sovereign Mexican constituent congress in session last night, agreed to appoint two alternates to the supreme executive power..."[4] The sign Scorpio would be rising in the horoscope from 9:08 p.m. to 11:22 p.m. Ultimately, however, the horoscope with a Scorpio ascendant is rejected for this country. Other events in 1823 and 1824 have been examined, but rejected. The Constitutive Acts of the Mexican Federation on January 21, 1824, which was an interim basis for the new government, also did not match the characteristics and historical pattern of the country, even if rectified with a Taurus ascendant. To make a long story short, the likely true event is linked to the adoption of a constitution which coincided with the creation of the new national entity on October 4, 1824.

Creation of Mexico
The Federal Constitution of the United Mexican States of 1824 officially created the United Mexican States. The country was composed of 19 states
and 4 federal territories. After the publication of the constitution, on November 18, the Federal District was created. On November 24, Tlaxcala which had retained a special status since the colonial era, was incorporated as a territory. On October 10, 1824, Guadalupe Victoria took office as the first President of Mexico. To meet the requirements of a national chart, the event would have transpired at 8:44 pm in Mexico city.

Astrology of the chart
13° 12' Taurus rises in the ascendant. Taurus is an earthy sign ruled by Venus, the significator for pleasures, materialistic pursuits and comforts.[5] The Moon, the significator for caring, tenderness and affluence, is exalted in this sign. Ketu, the significator of spiritual pursuits, is debilitated in this sign. These factors render the Taurus born people materialistic, motherly and sensual, enjoying comfort, beauty and luxury around them, being convinced that in all circumstances they are correct. In many countries the sentiments of nationality is focused on the promotion of nationalism itself. In Mexico, however, it seems to be focused on the need to earn a living.[6] Mexico thus tends to have a rather earthy image, which is consistent with the sign Taurus in the ascendant. This is corroborated by the fact that an outbreak of a swine flu pandemic in April 2009 was linked to the transit conjunction of Venus and Mars, which are functional malefic planets for Taurus ascendants, respectively ruling the 6th house of health and 12th house of loss.

Mexico is known for its ancient civilizations which appear strange to the modern sensibilities. Mexico is internationally recognised for its art, especially the music, which is ruled by the planet Venus. 6th lord Venus is well placed at 8° 32' Libra and 6th house. However, the 6th house is afflicted by Ketu at 13° 01' Gemini and the most effective point (MEP) of the 2nd house. This
aspect suggests problems involving financial stability and health issues. Desires related to wealth and status may result in isolation of or separative influences for the political opposition as well as the courts. Mexico has unique architecture, going back to the pyramids. This is associated with Venus (art) and Mercury (analysis), which are both important for design work like architecture. Mercury, as 5th lord is well placed at 15° 57' Virgo and in the MEP of the 5th house and Venus is strong.

Commenting on this horoscope, Australian astrologer Ron Day writes:
Mexico is famous for the pyramids of the Sun and Moon. Sun is lord of 4th house of buildings in the earthy and detailed sign of Virgo in the 5th house of creativity and Moon aspects 4th house MEP.
To this we can add that Saturn, as general indicator of structures and old things, is in the MEP of 1st house of self. This placement further ties the identity of Mexicans to their ancient civilizations, which the pyramids represent.

The placement of Mercury is also good for such indications as entertainment, speculation, morals and values, young people and universities. It suggest analysis results in creative solutions. This is more so as 4th lord Sun is placed in the 5th house and is conjunct Mercury. Mercury also aspects the 11th house of income, suggesting the 5th house indications are helpful for the income of Mexicans. Along with the placement of Mercury, strengthening the values and morals, and the Sun, which represents spiritual development, the aspect of Jupiter, the planet of religion, to the 3rd house of communication and 9th house of higher thought, explains the significant role of religion in Mexican life.

The country is famous for its cusine, which is ruled by the Moon. 3rd lord Moon is placed at 16° 59' Aquarius and in the MEP of the 10th house. This placement, by itself, is also good for initiatives in foreign trade, legislation and government. As 12th lord Mars at 17° 04' Scorpio and
MEP of 7th house closely aspects both the Moon and its dispositor, 10th lord Saturn at 16° 13' Taurus and MEP of 1st house, problems are seen for the indications of the Moon. Ketu also aspects Moon, suggesting further seperative influences. Indeed, there have been sanitation problems with e.g. pig meat (Swine flu), cheese (e-coli contamination) and other food products. Foreign tourists also report that Montesuma's revenge is still alive and well in Mexico. The aspect of Mars also suggests there would be losses or foreign influences involving the initiatives of government and prominent enterprises.

Mexico has prosperous neighbors to the north, the USA. Many Mexicans seek to work in the USA. This has created tension in the USA, which has tended to absorb these people in low paying agricultural and service sector jobs. While the Latino community is growing in the southern part of the USA, a fence has been built by the USA on its border with Mexico to keep the migrant workers out. This is consistent with Ketu's seperative influences on the 2nd house of neighbors. Indeed, the status of Mexico is frequently hurt by strange situations involving border crossings.

The climate is divided into temperate and tropical zones. The nature is arid and dry, with rain storms watering the land. Ketu, the planet of sudden, explosive events, at 13° 01' Gemini and 2nd house, aspects both the 6th house containing Venus, which rules comforts (including weather) and the 10th house, owned by Saturn. The country ranks high in biodiveristy, but deforestation is advancing at an alarming rate in Mexico, second only to Brazil. The implied lack of control or exploitation of its national resources is linked to Rahu at 13° 01' Sagittarius and 8th house afflicting the 4th house, as well as the 2nd and 12th houses.

While blessed with a warm climate and beautiful nature, Mexico is a troubled country. It is ethnically diverse, with various indigenous peoples and European immigrants forming a single national identity. According to studies of human genetics, close to 60% of Mexicans are mostly of European extraction, 35% of mostly Amerindian (Asian) origin and 5% of mostly African origing. Around one tenth of Me
xicans speak an indigenous language and claim an indigenous heritage. The aspect of Rahu suggests some challenges to communal harmony. This aspect, along with the influence of Ketu on the 10th house owned by Saturn, and the aspect of 12th lord Mars on Saturn in the 1st house, explains the many serious earthquakes experienced by Mexico. The active San Andreas fault line also runs through Mexico.

Mexico has one of the highest student-to-teaching staff ratio in the world with 26 students per teacher nationwide, which is not considered good. Despite this, the literacy rate for adults is relatively high, or 91%. The 4th house indications are thus mixed. Sun as 4th lord is well placed in the 5th house of intelligence, but the 4th house is afflicted by Rahu in the 8th house. More favourable conditions are seen for university training, which is ruled by the 5th lord Mercury. The university system of Mexico is highly rated in the country but is relatively difficult to fund by low income students.[7]

Due to its population size and upper-middle income level, Mexico has the thirteenth largest nominal GDP in the world. The 11th house would thus be fairly well set i
n this correct horoscope - not least due to the aspect of 5th lord Mercury to the 11th house. Entertainment and commerce would be important for Mexico. Tourism is a leading sector, with over 21 million international arrivals per year, making Mexico the tenth most visited country in the world. This suggests the 5th house and 7th house influences are important in the chart. Mexico is considered a newly industrialized country and it is strongly linked to the USA through the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). Monopolies are prevalent in the communication and energy industries. Mars rules industry and it is placed in the MEP of the 7th house of others, suggesting losses there, including concerning foreign relations. Mars is also aspected by 8th lord Jupiter in the 3rd house. This placement suggests serious problems for 7th house indications. Likely, this aspect reflects the prevalent crime in Mexico. At the same time, 10th lord Saturn aspects both Mars and the 7th house, which raises the profile of Mexico as a tourist destination, despite the problems.

Mexico has a very high degree of economic disparity between the extremely poor and extremely rich, in the world second only to Chile. As a result, the society is highly unequal and corrupt. Rahu's influence on the 4th house, the afflictions involving the 2nd house, including from afflicted Mars in the 7th house, suggest problems for social harmony. Crime is an enormous national problem with
15% of Mexicans reporting in a survey that they were a victim of crime in the past year. Mexicans have little confidence in the police or judicial system, which suffers from corruption and criminal intimidation, such that the crimes themselves are rarely reported. Law enforcement officials trying to oppose the crime have been known to be killed or run out of town. Mars, the general indicator of police, is highly afflicted. The crime is largely linked to the lucrative drug trade, based on smuggling drugs into the USA. This is picked up by the aspect of 8th lord Jupiter in the chart, on houses 3, 7, 9 and 11, as well as 12th lord Mars. The severity of the crime problem can be seen in the fact that 30,000-50,000 people have been killed in recent years in drug related violence, which has also spilled into the USA, creating political tensions there. This problem is also due to the nodal affliction to the even numbered houses. The compromised position of Mars is also consistent with Mexico not being known for achievements in sports. Oppression of journalists by drug cartels is a national problem. The affliction by Jupiter of the 3rd house is a key factor.

Significant historical events
EARTHQUAKE. The 1985 Mexico City earthquake, a magnitude 8.0 earthquake that struck Mexico city on the early morning of 19 September 1985 at around 7:19 am (CST), caused the deaths of at least 10,000 people and serious damage to the greater Mexico City Area. Mercury-Mercury period was operating, with transit 5th lord Mercury completely weak at 0° 03' Virgo, while transit debilitated 8th lord Jupiter at 13° 46' Capricorn was aspecting the 5th house. Meanwhile, transit Rahu at 16° 19' Aries and MEP of 12th house was aspecting 4th house and transit 12th lord Mars at 12° 21' Leo and MEP of 4th house. Transit 4th lord Sun was in infancy in the afflicted 5th house.
FINANCIAL CRISIS. The 1994 Economic Crisis in Mexico, widely known as the Mexican peso crisis or the Tequila crisis, was caused by the sudden devaluation of the Mexican peso from December 20, 1994. The crisis lasted for several months. Mercury-Rahu period was operating. Transit stationary Rahu at 20° 06' Libra and 6th house was conjunct transit 6th lord Venus at 20° 26' Libra, when the crisis erupted. Transit 12th lord Mars at 7° Leo was afflicting transit 8th lord Jupiter at 8° Scorpio and 7th house. Meanwhile, transit Sun and Mercury were badly placed in the 8th house. Finally, natal Ketu in the 2nd house aspected transit stationary 10th lord Saturn at 13° Aquarius and MEP of 10th house.
PANDEMIC. In March and April 2009, an outbreak of a new strain of influenza commonly referred to as "swine flu" infected many people in Mexico, causing illness ranging from mild to severe. As of April 27, 2009, all schools nationwide remained closed until at least May 6. Around 400 people were killed. Venus-Venus period was operating. Venus rules the 6th house of health. Transit stationary Ketu at 15° Cancer and MEP of 3rd house was conjunct 8th lord Jupiter at 17° Cancer and aspected natal 12th lord Mars from early 2009. Transit Venus in Pisces and 11th house was conjunct transit 12th lord Mars for most of April. As the crisis peaked in late April 2009, the combination of Mars and Venus was aspected by transit Ketu at 11° Cancer and 3rd house.
DRUG WAR. The Mexican Drug War is an ongoing armed conflict taking place among rival drug cartels fighting each other for regional control.The Mexican drug cartels, which became more powerful after the demise of Colombia's Cali and Medellín cartels in the 1990s, now dominates the wholesale illicit drug market in the United States, valued at upto $50 billion annually. Arrests of key cartel leaders, particularly in the Tijuana and Gulf cartels, led to increasing drug violence as cartels fight for control of the trafficking routes into the United States. The drug violence has escalated dramatically since 2008. Venus-Venus period is operating since October 29, 2007.
WAR & CESSION OF TERRITORIES. The Mexican–American War, was an armed conflict between the United States and Mexico from 1846 to 1848 in the wake of the 1845 U.S. annexation of Texas, which Mexico considered part of its territory despite the 1836 Texas Revolution. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo is the peace treaty, largely dictated by the United States to the interim government of a militarily occupied Mexico City, that ended the war on February 2, 1848. With the defeat of its army and the fall of the capital, Mexico surrendered to the United States and entered into negotiations to end the war. In addition to Texas, Mexico ceded the huge territories of Alta California and Santa Fe de Nuevo Mexico, which now constitute the many states in the south western portion of the USA. The two countries exchanged ratifications of the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo on 30 May 1848. The war began in Saturn-Saturn period and concluded in the Saturn-Mercury period. Saturn as 10th lord is placed in the 1st house of self and is natally afflicted by Mars as 12th lord of losses. Ketu afflicts the 10th house and Rahu afflicts the 4th house of land. When the countries exchanged ratifications for the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, transit 4th lord Sun was conjunct natal Saturn and opposite natal 12th lord Mars.
REVOLUTION & REFORM. The Mexican Revolution was a major armed struggle that started in 1910, with an uprising against a dictator who emphasised industry and modernization over human rights. The revolt turned into a multi-sided civil war. This armed conflict is often categorized as the most important sociopolitical event in Mexico and one of the greatest upheavals of the 20th century. After prolonged struggles, a new constitution was agreed upon in 1917. The revolution is considered to have ended in 1920, while armed conflict continued in the 1920s. Sun-Saturn period was operating at the outset of the revolt. On May 31, 1911, when the dictator fled the country, transit 4th lord Sun was conjunct natal Saturn and opposite natal Mars. Transit 8th lord Jupiter was in the 6th house conjunct transit Ketu and in aspect to natal Ketu in the 2nd house. Transit transit Saturn was conjunct transit Rahu in the 12th house.

Future trends
Venus-Moon period is operating from February 28, 2012 to October 29, 2013. During the Venus major period, the financial stability would tend to be ok, but there would also likely be periodic sudden strains. Moon rules the 3rd house of communication and transportation. It is prominently placed in the 10th house, but is afflicted, in an afflicted house owned by an afflicted planet, Saturn. Transit Saturn will be in 6th house in coming few years, suggesting plenty of political controversies. Transit 8th lord Jupiter is in the 12th house until May 19, 2012, signals losses for easy gains and obstacles for foreign dealings, including smuggling activities. In late 2012 and early 2013, while transit Jupiter is conjunct natal 10th lord and opposite 12th lord Mars, there would likely be violent events placing grave strain on the government. These events could also involve the foreign trade of Mexico. During the Venus-Moon period, problems are expected for business initiatives in Mexico. The media is likely to be under considerable pressure in this period. Transportation mishaps are likely. The outturn of these predictions will be important for judging this tentative chart for Mexico.

This horoscope seems to give a good fit to the historical events and natal potential. There are many difficult afflictions, but also good placements, notably involving 4th lord Sun and 5th lord Mercury in the 5th house.


[1] Wikipedia entry on Mexico
[2] Green, Stanley (1987). The Mexican Republic: The First Decade, 1823-1832. Pitt Latin American Series and The Federalist Republic, 1824-36.
[3]Decreto. Nombramiento de los individuos que han de componer el poder ejecutivo. Marzo 31 de 1823. 500 years of Mexico in documents.
[4] Decreto. Nombramiento de suplentes para el supremo poder ejecutivo. Abril 1º de 1823.
[5] Taurus-ascending sign description by Astrologer & Author V. K. Choudhry.
[6] Beezley, William (2008). Mexican National Identity: Memory, Innuendo, and Popular Culture. University of Arizona Press.
[7] OECD (2008). Reviews of Tertiary Education - Mexico.

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