Friday, December 31, 2010

Predictions for the USA in 2011

In this article are presented some predictions the USA in the coming year based on the 20° Cancer rising SAMVA USA horoscope. A review of the main planetary placements and transit-to-transit aspects is followed by a discussion of placements by house and transit-to-natal aspects and what to expect for the USA. Of note are afflictions involving Saturn in the first part of the year while the nodes afflict at the end of the year.

Period influences in 2011

The US will continue to run the Venus major period and Saturn sub-period in 2011. As such, we can expect similar trend influences (not the same as signficant events, which are linked to transits) to what has been seen so far since February 2009 and what was seen during the earlier such period from February 1889 to April 1892. The Venus major period tends to bring strains or setbacks to the indications of Venus as 4th lord, including communal harmony, fixed assets and natural resources. The Saturn sub-period places emphasis on the general and functional indications of Saturn as 8th lord. It's period tends to bring slow progress in the national affairs, with emphasis on old things, mining from deep within the ground, working people and civil servants. Of the functional indications of Saturn, we can expect issues of importance to include the masses and their beliefs, obstacles and accidents, easy gains and natural disasters. As Saturn is placed in the 5th house, the above indications tend to be expressed in areas such as universities, children, creativity, speculation and emotional stability.

Transit influences in 2011
We can begin by noting the beginning and ending placements of the planets in 2011 and how many signs they will pass through during the year.

Table: Transits of planets in 2011
................1.1.2011...........31.12.2011....# of signs
Sun................16°Sg11'..............14°Sg54'..........12
Moon...............5°Sc13'...............1°Pi00'..........12+
Mars...............24°Sg21'.............25°Le50'..........9
Mercury.........25°Sc49'.............24°Sc28'..........12
Venus.............29°Li33'.............18°Cp34'.........12+
Jupiter..............2°Pi32'...............6°Ar23'...........2
Saturn.............22°Vi38'..............4°Li12'............2
Rahu.................8°Sg45'D..........19°Sc58'...........2
Ketu..................8°Ge45'D.. .......19°Ta58'..........2


Of the faster moving planets, only Mercury will go briefly stationary several times in 2011: at 0° Aries in the last week of March, 21° Pisces in the third week of April, 5° Leo in the last week of July, 28° Cancer in the third week of August, 22° Scorpio in the third week of November and 14° Scorpio in the second week of December. For the USA, Mercury is 3rd lord of communication, initiative and courage, placed in the 7th house of others and foreign policy. As such, Mercury is strongly linked to the emphasis of freedom of speech and action in US life. During its periods, the US has engaged in either difficult efforts to ensure the rights of underpriviliged segments of society or the freedom of action at home or abroad. The time in mid April would be good for the indications of Mercury, as it will be in the MEP of the 9th house of luck, aspecting its own indications. However, it will also be conjunct 6th lord Jupiter, bringing controversy. Look for news at that time about such indications having positive outcomes amidst controversy.
Of relatively greater import is the movement of the slow moving planets. The stationary periods of the slow moving planets are important, as their energy becomes focused on specific degrees of the zodiac for several months at a time. A major aspect at the outset of the year involves the stationary conjunction of Saturn at 23° Virgo with the MEP of the 3rd house of communication, from where it also aspects the 5th house (Scorpio), 9th house (Pisces) and 12th house (Gemini). The conjunction of Saturn and the 3rd house MEP became exact on November 20, 2010, when strains from impending leaks from Wikileaks caused considerable stress for US diplomacy and then the leaks began to pour out and embarrass from late November. In December 2010, weather problems disrupted travel in the country.
In early 2011, the orb of the conjunction has widened but is still well within in the 5° orb. Morevoer, as Virgo is a Moolatrikona sign, owned by Mercury, the indications of the 3rd house are expected to become more vulnerable to strains and setbacks associated with the conjunction when Mercury becomes weak or afflicted in transit. With the exception of the first half of February, Mercury will be weak in transit until mid May. The fact that Saturn will remain in the MEP of the 3rd house until May, as sub-period lord, suggests ongoing strains linked to the indications of the 3rd house, especially when transit 6th lord Jupiter begins to oppose transit Saturn in the second half of March and first half of April 2011, around 20° Virgo and Pisces. The strains at that time may concern such things as the communication of the government or the US diplomatic corps. Saturn also tends to slow things down, bringing soberness and structure. US media is likely to feel the chill winds of this transit, most likely traditional print media. From May into July 2011, Saturn again becomes stationary at around 17° Virgo, aspecting also this degree in Scorpio, Pisces and Leo. As there are no planets in these degrees in the SAMVA USA chart, the problems associated with Saturn are expected to be less at that time.

Lord of controversy
As Jupiter is 6th lord, its placement tends to bring controversy to the indications of things it touches. In Pisces and the 9th house, the controversy relates to e.g. the judicial system, philosophical outlook and foreign affairs. Transit Jupiter begins the year in mutual aspect to its own natal placement. This aspect, which peaks on January 13, suggests scope for accidents, controversy and conflict. Fortunately, transit Jupiter is well placed in Pisces and the 9th house of fortune, reducing the harmfulness. In the final week of April, transit Jupiter will aspect natal Saturn, suggesting controversy for the indications of Saturn. It is also an aspect that suggests violence. Fortunately, the aspect is not stationary and thus its influence will not be felt for long. .
Jupiter becomes stationary at 15°-16° Aries during August and September 2011. From there it aspects the same degrees in Leo, Libra and Sagittarius. Importantly, at this degree, Jupiter will be conjunct natal Rahu, suggesting controversy involving the exposure of manipulations in such areas as government administration, foreign trade, Congress and the enactment of laws, potentially affecting also religious and judiciary institutions. Jupiter will also be opposite Ketu, suggesting scope for violent accidents that disturb the communal harmony, more so when other afflictions co-exist.


Trend changes
Of the four slow moving planets, three will change signs in May 2011. Such a change of signs by several slow moving planets signals important trend changes in the national affairs, linked to matters indicated by these planets and in the respective signs and houses. Jupiter will exit Pisces and enter Aries on May 9th. In this regard, we could note that Jupiter is relatively well placed in both Pisces and Aries. That said, the problems would become less for e.g. the diplomatic corps but greater for the government and Congress. Rahu will leave Sagittarius and enter Scorpio on May 4th, when also Ketu leaves Gemini and enters Taurus. Rahu and Ketu are debilitated in the signs of Scorpio and Taurus, respectively. As such, transit afflictions involving the nodes in these signs would be expected to be more difficult than otherwise. The transit of the nodes in debilitation would be expected to bring problems e.g. for incomes and speculations.
On November 11, 2011, Saturn ends its two and half year sojourn of Virgo and 3rd house and enters Libra and 4th house. While Saturn becomes exalted in Libra, which would be good for its indications, it becomes weak due to the bad placement of natal Venus in the SAMVA USA chart. In early Libra, Saturn does not afflict other planets in the horoscope for the remainder of the year.

Nodal trouble in late 2011 <
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The retrograde moving nodes, which become stationary three times a year, begin the year stationary with Rahu at 8° Sagittarius and the 6th house and Ketu at 8° Gemini and 12th house in the SAMVA USA chart. Rahu brings materiality, manipulation and crisis to those things it touches on, while Ketu brings sudden violent or separating events. As the nodes are not afflicting in the SAMVA USA chart in early 2011, such influences are not especially pronounced due to their transit placement. However, this transit suggests difficulty for the indications of the 6th and 12th house, but this was more so in 2010 when the nodes moved through the MEPs of these houses. After the nodes change signs, they again become stationary at around 29° Scorpio and Taurus from early May and into July 2011. After gaining normal speed and moving from there Rahu becomes conjunct natal Saturn at 27° Scorpio (and Ketu opposes it). This suggests briefly increased difficulty for the indications of Saturn during August, especially towards its end. In the second half of September, transit Ketu will aspect transit 8th lord Saturn in the MEP of the 3rd house and natal 2nd lord Sun in the 7th house. This could be a stressful time for the US President. Adding to the tension in the late Summer and early Autumn would be the conjunction of transit 6th lord Jupiter and the natal nodal axis.



From October through December, the nodes again become stationary at around 20° Scorpio and Taurus, from where will be exactly conjunct the MEPs of the 5th and 11th houses. This suggest strains for the indications of these houses and the other odd numbered houses. Out of these, the 1st house (Cancer) ruled by the Moon and the 3rd house (Virgo) ruled by Mercury become more vulnerable when the Moon and Mercury are weak or afflicted in transit.


In sum
The economy will continue to grow but in a sluggish manner. The obstructing influence of Saturn in the 3rd house of communication will continue to be strongly felt in the first half of 2011. In middle of the year, Jupiter will bring out controversy and conflict affecting the US government and communal harmony. From the Autumn months, and notably towards the end of the year such indications as incomes, friendships, speculation, financial markets, university life and children are likely to become disturbed, as well as problems in transportation and some crisis regarding the image of the country.

Saturday, November 13, 2010

The power to tax

The first major test of the new taxing powers of a federal government under the new US Constitution took place in 1791, with the imposition of a federal excise tax on distilled spirits, giving rise to the so-called Whiskey rebellion in 1794. This development is clearly seen in the natal, period and transit influences of the SAMVA USA chart, including the seeds of the uprising, its culmination and the reimposition of order in the affected states. Additionally, the repeal of this tax in 1800 and impetus for a two party system are seen in these developments - and the chart.

Historical background
The Whiskey Rebellion, also known as the Whiskey Insurrection, was a popular uprising that had its beginnings in 1791 and culminated in an insurrection in 1794 in the locality of Washington, Pennsylvania, in the Monongahela Valley. The rebellion occurred after the Articles of Confederation had been replaced by a stronger federal government under the United States Constitution in 1789.

A new U.S. federal government began operating in 1789, following the ratification of the United States Constitution. A source of government revenue was needed to pay the bond holders to whom the debt was owed. By December 1790, Hamilton believed that import duties, which were the government's primary source of revenue, had been raised as high as was feasible. He therefore promoted passage of an excise tax on domestically distilled spirits. This was to be the first tax levied by the national government on a domestic product. Although taxes were politically unpopular, Hamilton believed that the whiskey excise was a luxury tax that would be the least objectionable tax that the government could levy. In this he had the support of some social reformers, who hoped that a "sin tax" would raise public awareness about the harmful effects of alcohol. [1]

The whiskey excise became law in March 1791. Angered by the imposition of such a tax by the federal government, farmers in the western counties of Pennsylvania engaged in a series of attacks on excise agents. The tariff effectively eliminated any profit by the farmers from the sale or barter of an important cash crop, and became the lightning rod for a wide variety of grievances by the settlers of the region against the federal government. While citizens in the east did not find it difficult to abide by the concept that individual states were "subservient to the country," people west of the mountains were less accepting of decisions made by the central government. The rebel farmers continued their attacks, rioting in river towns and roughing up tax collectors until the so-called "insurrection" flared into the open in July of 1794 when a federal marshal was attacked in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania. Almost at the same time several hundred men attacked the residence of the regional inspector, burning his home, barn and several outbuildings. Pittsburgh was another scene of disorder by enraged mobs.

On August 7, 1794, President Washington issued a proclamation, calling out the militia and ordering the disaffected westerners to return to their homes. Washington's order mobilized an army of approximately 13,000 — as large as the one that had defeated the British — under the command of General Harry Lee, the then-Governor of Virginia and father of Robert E. Lee. Washington himself, in a show of presidential authority, set out at the head of the troops to suppress the uprising.

The Proclamation was the first use of the Militia Law of 1792 setting a precedent for the use of the militia to "execute the laws of the union, (and) suppress insurrections," asserting the right of the national government to enforce order in one state with troops raised in other states. Even more importantly, it was the first test of power of the new federal government.[1]

The Whiskey Rebellion of August 1794 was the product of growing discontentment, which had been expressed as early as 1791, of grain farmers who resented a federal tax imposed on their distillery products. As growers threatened federal tax collectors with physical harm, Washington at first tried to prosecute the resistors in the court system. In 1794, however, 6,000 men angry at the tax gathered at a field near Pittsburgh and, with fake guillotines at the ready, challenged Washington and the federal government to disperse them.

After issuing the public proclamation, President Washington gave his former Revolutionary War aide-de-camp and current Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton the power to organize troops to put down the rebellion. In his letter to Lee on August 26, Washington noted that the general populace considered the insurrection with "universal indignation and abhorrence" and said that he otherwise would not have authorized such a heavy-handed response. Washington knew that the nation, having only recently violently overthrown the tyrannical English king, was in a delicate state and did not want to appear as an equally despotic president. He waited to see if the insurgents would back down; they did not.

According to biographer Joseph Ellis in His Excellency, George Washington, the aging president mounted his horse on September 30 to lead a force of 13,000--larger than any American army amassed in one place during the Revolution--to quell the uprising. (The act of mounting his war horse was brief and largely symbolic; Washington made most of the journey by carriage.) Lee joined Washington and the army on its march to Pennsylvania. This was the first and only time a sitting American president ever led troops into battle. Washington abandoned the procession early, however, leaving Alexander Hamilton, the true mastermind of the military response to the insurrection, in charge of the final approach to Pittsburgh.

The rioters dispersed in the presence of the federal troops and bloodshed was averted. In the aftermath, Washington reported to Congress that although he had agonized about the decision and intended to uphold the constitutional right to protest unfair tax laws, the insurrection had to be put down or the survival of the young democracy would have been in peril. Congress applauded his decision, but Washington's former Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson, who was in temporary retirement at his Monticello estate, viewed Washington's decision to call out troops against fellow citizens as a dire threat to republican ideals and an abuse of presidential power. The uprising highlighted a growing division in early American politics which, by the end of Washington's second term, pitted rural, agricultural interests, led by future Presidents Jefferson and James Madison, against the pro-industrial urban interests, represented by Hamilton and John Adams, and gave rise to the two-party political system.[2]

The Whiskey Rebellion demonstrated that the new national government had the willingness and ability to suppress violent resistance to its laws. The whiskey excise remained difficult to collect, however. The whiskey tax was repealed after Thomas Jefferson's Republican Party, which opposed Hamilton's Federalist Party, came to power in 1800.[1]

Astrological analysis
The government is ruled by the 10th house and its lord, as well as the Sun, as general indicator of the State and its leader, the President. The taxes imposed by the government affect the finances of the households. Hence, the sixth house and its lord become important for such matters.

In the SAMVA USA chart, it is the sign Aries that falls into the 10th house and its MT lord Mars thus becomes the 10th lord in the SAMVA USA chart. Mars is in its own sign Scorpio and the 5th house and is in mutual aspect with an exalted 1st lord Moon in Taurus and the 11th house. By itself, this means that Americans identify strongly with their own government and the government affairs would generally be expected to prosper. However, as Rahu is natally conjunct the Most Effective Point of the 10th house, material desires bring manipulations and deceptions into this field. We could also note that Rahu is the general indicator of intoxicants. Rahu also aspects and thus harms the 2nd house of wealth, the 4th house of communal harmony and 6th house of conflict. So, the manipulative tendencies are felt strongly in the national life. At the same time, Jupiter as 6th lord is in Scorpio and in aspect to the Moon. This aspect, while not harmful by itself, introduces tension into the identity of the country about financial matters and conflict. More so as Venus as 4th lord is placed in the 6th house and Ketu natally afflicts the 4th, introducing sudden and explosive upsets to the collective harmony. Ketu also aspects the 8th house of obstacles and endings, 10th house of government and foreign trade and 12th house of foreign matters, smuggling, losses, etc.. All told, the issues of government and taxation are a persistent source of debate, even occasional upset in the national life. The key protagonists tend to be isolated groups or individulas ruled by Ketu or vested interests or unethical business concerns ruled by Rahu.
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Interestingly, it can be said that the placement of Rahu and Ketu captures the early division of interests by the industrial states using hired labor of the North vs. the farming and slave holding states of the South, which erupted in the civil war of the 1860s. Moreover, these placements are likely also influential in the modern division of business vs labor seen in the Republican and Democrat parties since the opening of the 20th century.

As for the insurrection, it is noteworthy that the Mars - Jupiter period was operating when it finally flared up in the Summer of 1794 and when it was summarily surpressed that same Autumn. Mars rules the 10th house of government and Jupiter is 6th lord of opposition and conflict. Both reside in the 5th house of creativity, speculation and are influenced by and influencing the Moon as 1st lord of self in the 11th house of income and aspirations. Natally, Jupiter and the 2nd lord Sun in the 7th house rule the taxing powers of the government.

Winter of 1790/91
The exise tax was proposed in December 1790 and became law in March 1791. The Moon-Venus period was operating from February 17, 1790 to October 19, 1791 when the Moon-Sun period began. The Venus sub-period is appropriate for the imposition of the first federal tax on a domestic product, which also caused consternation by the farmers producing the distilled liquor, which simmered until it burst out as open revolt a few years later.

Early 1974
In early 1794, transit Saturn was conjunct natal Rahu in the 10th house, and in opposition to natal Ketu. This is likely to have created a disturbance to the communal harmomy in the country that erupted in the summer when the stationary transit affkictions involving the first rate malefics took place in the chart.

Summer of 1794
The following aspects are shown with a 2° orb during the summer of 1794:
Sa_t H07 Ju_r 2°26'-6°21' Tau 6/13/94-7/21/94
Sa_t Con Mo_r 5°22'-8°38' Tau 7/10/94-9/05/94
Sa_t H07 Ma_r 8° 9'-8°38' Tau 8/18/94-9/05/94
Ra_t H05 Sa_r 28°39'-26°35' Can 6/11/94-9/05/94
Sa_r H05 Ke_t 28°39'-26°35' Cap 6/11/94-9/05/94
_t: transit; _r: radix (natal)

The key transits explaining the tumult are likely:
1. transit Saturn, as 8th lord of obstacles and endings, passed into an opposition aspect with natal Jupiter and then became stationary conjunct natal Moon.
2. transit Rahu in Cancer in stationary aspect to natal Saturn, with the latter aspecting transit Ketu in Capricorn.
The adverse transits during the summer of 1794 began to ease in September.

Autumn of 1794
During the crisis, transit stationary Ketu had become widely conjunct the strong Sun in the chart, adding to the political pressure on the President. On September 30, the US President showed his presidential authority when transit 2nd lord Sun and transit 3rd lord Mercury were conjunct the MEP of the 3rd house of initiative. On October 23, transit Ketu in normal retrograde motion became exactly conjunct the natal Sun and by end October had passed out of the 1° orb. Because of this, we can assume that most of the tension on the authority of the State and the President had died as the month of November began.
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Influence of Rahu major period
It is interesting to note that the whiskey tax was repealed immediately after the Rahu major period began on April 19, 1799.

Conclusion
The Whiskey Rebellion can be traced back to new taxation on distilled liquor in the Winter of 1790/91 when the Venus sub-period was operarting. The open revolt broke out during the Mars major period and Jupiter sub-period. While the taxing powers of the US government were put to the test, the government easily withstood the challenge. There were only a few casualties. Moreover, tax evasion became a problem in the wake of the rebellion. As soon as the Rahu major period dawned, the tax on the domestic production of Whiskey was repealed, signalling a temporary victory by the vested interests. Interestingly, as has been shown in the article Boom bust and war, distilled liquor again became a national issue during the second major period of Rahu from 1919 to 1937.


References
[1] Wikipedia: The Whiskey Rebellion
[2] August 26, 1794: George Washington writes to Henry Lee
http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/george-washington-writes-to-henry-lee

Tuesday, October 26, 2010

Progress report on Iceland chart

In the article Land of ice and fire on April 26, 2010, the tentative but likely authentic chart for Iceland was presented. Work on this chart is ongoing, but so far several predictions made on the basis of this chart have proved accurate. In this article the predictions are reviewed and some historical events examined.

Prediction update
On April 27, 2010, Astrologer & Author V K Choudhry made the following prediction based on the new horoscope for Iceland:

"Worsening of situation is seen on 4th and 5th May, 2010. There can be possibility of additional stress of volcanic erruption."
This prediction was realised, with the plume increasing in height and ash emissions intensifying from May 4 to May 6 and subsiding thereafter.[1]

On April 16, 2010, Cosmologer made the following prediction based on the chart.

"It is likely the natural event taking place will be felt [for some months] ... also as the transit nodes will become stationary in the MEPs of the houses they now occupy."
This prediction has also been realised as the eruption ceased by June 6th, 2010. The cleanup efforts took place during the summer. Due to the flight disruptions in countries bordering the Atlantic ocean in April, tourism to Iceland was reduced during the Summer. By the fall of 2010, the situation was returning to a sense of normalcy in the areas most affected by the eruption, although some displacement of population in rural areas near to the volcano had taken place.
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When the financial crisis aftershocks reverbrated in early October 2010 the following was predicted on October 5, 2010:
"With this aspect being shortlived, we could thus expect the sudden spike in tensions to recede rather quickly."
Indeed, this has been the outcome. The tensions died down shortly afterwards as the transit affliction lifted.

Tragedies in the West Coast of Iceland
In this article we examine three tragedies of a similar nature, which took place during the major period of Saturn.

Event 1: At 04:00 pm, on January 22, 1983, 4 persons were killed in snow avalanche in Patreksfjordur.
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Event 2: At 06:25 am, on January 16, 1995, a snow avalanche killed 14 in the town of Sudavik.
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Event 3: At 04:05 am, October 24, 1995, a snow avalanche killed 19 in the town of Flateyri.

First we may note that Iceland has a small population of only around 300.000 people. As such the death of only 10 people is proportionate to 10,000 people being lost in the USA, which has a population that is one thousand times larger than in Iceland.


Astrology of the events
The Saturn major period was operating from 1981 to 2000. Saturn is 4th lord of real estate, natural resources and communal harmony. It is placed in the 8th house of obstacles and endings. Saturn is in infancy and thus weak in the chart. A mildly favourable influence is its conjunction with Moon as 9th lord of fortune, also in infancy in the 8th house. This placement explains why Iceland is fortunate to some extent with respect to its “real estate“ and natural resources but also that these are beset by obstacles in terms of harsh weather conditions, a threatening sea and frequent volanic disturbances. During the Saturn major period there were some national tragedies involving snow avalanches. Saturn is also a significator of cold things.

Let us examine the astrology of these two events. First, let us note the very difficult natal affliction in the chart involving 6th lord Mars being conjunct Rahu in the 9th house. Mars is dually afflicted by its placement on the nodal axis. Moreover, Mars also afflicts the nodes, This is quite difficult karma for financial instability and accidents. During the major period of Saturn, accidents involving loss of life were prominent in the collective experience.


Event 1 - Patreksfjordur (4)
Saturn-Saturn period was operating, with transit Saturn placed at 10° Libra and the 12th house of losses under aspect from natal 6th lord Mars in the 9th house. Transit 12th lord Venus was afflicting natal 2nd lord Jupiter in the 9th house. Transit 9th lord Moon in the 6th house was afflicted by transit Ketu in the 2nd house. Transit Rahu in the 8th house was afflicting transit 6th lord Mars in the 4th house, which was afflicting natal 10th lord Sun in the 7th house.
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Event 2 - Sudavik (14)
Saturn-Rahu period was operating, with transit Rahu in Libra and the 12th house stationary conjunct the MEP from october 08, 1994 to January 18, 1995. Transit Ketu also became conjunct 11th lord Mercury in the 6th house on that day. Transit 2nd lord Jupiter was conjunct transit 12th lord Venus in the 1st house.
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Event 3 - Flateyri (19)
Saturn-Rahu period was operating, with transit stationary Rahu at 2° Libra and 12th house aspecting natal Saturn and Moon in the 8th house from August /September 1995 to December 1995/January 1996. On that day, transit Moon and Sun were at 6° Libra where they were conjunct transit Rahu and under afflicting aspect from 6th lord Mars in the 9th house.
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Clearly, the periods and transits explain these events very well.

Conclusion
The new horoscope for Iceland is demonstrating success so far, both in explaining the history of the young Republic, but also as a basis for future predictions. Repeat accurate predictions are the true proof of the authenticity of any mundane horoscope.

References
[1] Eyjafjallajokull eruption in 2010
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2010_eruptions_of_Eyjafjallaj%C3%B6kull

Saturday, October 16, 2010

The New Nation

There numerous notable events in US history that warrant careful astrological examination in terms of the SAMVA USA chart. Two events of major importance for the new nation were the Surrender of Cornwallis and the Treaty of Paris.

The surrender of Cornwallis
The Siege of Yorktown or Battle of Yorktown in 1781 was a decisive victory by combined assault of American forces led by General George Washington and French forces led by the Comte de Rochambeau over a British Army commanded by Lieutenant General Lord Cornwallis. It proved to be the last major land battle of the American Revolutionary War in North America, as the surrender of Cornwallis's army prompted the British government eventually to negotiate an end to the conflict....After two days of negotiation, the surrender ceremony took place on [October] the 19th, with Cornwallis being absent since he claimed to be ill. With the capture of over 8,000 British soldiers, negotiations between the United States and Great Britain began, resulting in the Treaty of Paris in 1783.[1]

A few things may be noted about the astrology of this event.

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Astrology of military victory
As per the SAMVA USA chart, the Sun major period was operating from April 18, 1776 to April 19, 1782. However, the SAMVA USA chart really only begins on February 2, 1781, when Maryland became the 13th and final state to pass the Act to ratify the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union. That said, the Sun major period was operating when the USA effectively won the American Revolutionary War with the surrender of Cornwallis at Yorktown on October 19, 1781. The Sun period is highly significant due to the strong and well placed Sun in the SAMVA USA chart. As a result this period is expected to bring forth power and status in foreign policy linked to a natural authority for the country. The sub-period was that of 4th lord Venus in the 6th house, which suggests the collective harmony and fixed assets, including land, are caught up in a conflict. The transits on this day are mixed, showing the enormous difficulty the conflict had brought (transit debilitated 2nd lord Sun in separating conjunction with transit Ketu, transit Saturn conjunct natal Saturn, transit 1st lord Moon conjunct natal 6th lord Jupiter, Transit 6th lord Jupiter opposite natal 1st lord Moon), but also the enormous relief (transit 4th lord Venus conjunct natal 10th lord Mars, transit 10th lord Mars in MEP of 7th house, transit 3rd lord Mercury in 4th house MEP)
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Path to peace
Although Cornwallis' surrender at Yorktown in the Fall of 1781 marked the end of the Revolutionary War, minor battles between the British and the colonists continued for another two years. Finally, in February of 1783 George III issued his Proclamation of Cessation of Hostilities, culminating in the Peace Treaty of 1783.

In September 1782, Benjamin Franklin, along with John Adams and John Jay, began official peace negotiations with the British. The Continental Congress had originally named a five-person committee--including Franklin, Adams and Jay, along with Thomas Jefferson and Henry Laurens--to handle the talks. However, both Jefferson and Laurens missed the sessions--Jefferson had travel delays and Laurens had been captured by the British and was being held in the Tower of London. The U.S. delegation, which was distrustful of the French, opted to negotiate separately with the British.

During the talks Franklin demanded that Britain hand over Canada to the United States. This did not come to pass, but America did gain enough new territory south of the Canadian border to double its size. The United States also successfully negotiated for important fishing rights in Canadian waters and agreed, among other things, not to prevent British creditors from attempting to recover debts owed to them. Two months later, the key details had been hammered out and on November 30, 1782, the United States and Britain signed the preliminary articles of the treaty. France signed its own preliminary peace agreement with Britain on January 20, 1783, and then in September of that year, the final treaty was signed by all three nations and Spain. The Treaty of Paris was ratified by the Continental Congress on January 14, 1784.

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The Treaty of Paris
The Treaty of Paris, signed on September 3, 1783, ratified by the Congress of the Confederation on January 14, 1784, and by the King of Great Britain on April 9, 1784 (the ratification documents were exchanged in Paris on May 12, 1784), formally ended the American Revolutionary War between the Kingdom of Great Britain and the United States of America, which had rebelled against British rule. The other combatant nations, France, Spain and the Dutch Republic had separate agreements; for details of these, and the negotiations which produced all four treaties, see Peace of Paris (1783). [2]
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Astrology of peaceful recognition
The Moon major period began on April 18, 1782 and it ran for 10 years. This period placed the emphasis on the 1st lord of self in the SAMVA USA chart. As Moon is exalted at 7° 19' Taurus and 11th house, this placement finds the self of the nation being expressed in the house having to do with hopes, wishes and ideals - as well as incomes and friendships. When the Treaty of Paris was signed, the Mars sub-period had begun, lasting from February 17, 1783 to September 17, 1783. As Mars is 10th lord of career as well as being lord of the government, the prominence of these things was evident during the six month sub-period. More than that, as the 10th lord Mars is in mutual aspect with natal Moon as 1st lord, and with both the 1st and 10th houses linked to fame, this period gave the USA increased fame.

For lack of information it is assumed the Treaty of Paris was signed at 2:00 PM on September 3, 1783 in Paris, France. The transits at that time look impressive indeed. Notably, transit 2nd lord Sun at 19° 57' Leo and 2nd house is exactly conjunct the Most Effective Point of the house, highlighting the status of the new nation, the USA. By comparison, had the signing taken place at 3:00 PM the Sun would have been at 19° 59' Leo. Interestingly, the Sun was also so auspiciously placed at the swearing in of George Washington as the first President under the US Constitution. It was at that time the country became a fully fledged Republic. In this regard, a distinction needs to be made between nationhood as defined by the Perpetual Union established in 1781 and the form of government, which was altered in 1789, with the new Constitution. Another aspect of note at the signing of the Treaty of Paris concerned transit debilitated 1st lord Moon was at 9° 50' Scorpio and 5th house, where it was exactly conjunct natal 10th lord Mars at 10° 07'. The major and sub-period lords were thus conjoined during the auspicious event. It could also be noted that transit 10th lord Mars was in retrograde motion at 23° 43' Pisces and 9th house of foreign countries and luck and thus in the MEP of this house, from where it aspected the 12th house of foreign countries, 3rd house of action and courage and 4th house of communal harmony. What is interesting that, aside from transit Saturn as 8th lord of obstacles and endings at 15° 08' Sagittarius and 6th house of conflict under aspect of natal Rahu at 17° 47' Aries in the 10th house of government and foreign trade, there were no afflicting aspects to speak of in the chart at that time.

When the Treaty of Paris was ratified in the early 1784, the Rahu sub-period had begun (September 17, 1783 - March 18, 1785). George Washington said that these were treacherous times and that great care was needed for the USA not to get involved in other foreign conflicts, while it developed and gathered strength. Indeed, the country was fortunate to see the major periods of strong and mutually aspecting planets Moon and Mars running consecutively through the remainder of the 18th century. This was generally a time of progressive development at home as the governing infrastructure of the country was developed and its capacity to defend itself improved. Similar trends are seen in the nascent European Union of today as well as the People's Republic of China.

In sum, the period and transit influences corroborate quite precisely the events during the early years of the nation.

Sources
[1] Surrender of Cornwallis - Wikipedia
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siege_of_Yorktown
[2] Treaty of Paris - Wikipedia
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_Paris_(1783)

Tuesday, October 5, 2010

Financial crisis aftershocks

The search for an authentic horoscope for Iceland has been ongoing for some years. The monumental financial collapse that hit Iceland in the autumn of 2008 was not in line with what had been predicted based on the horoscope most astrologers have adopted for Iceland. This horoscope is based on the Ceremony for the new Republic on June 17, 1944, 2:00 PM at Thingvellir, giving 9° 30' Virgo rising. More recently, we have been studying a horoscope based on the close of the Referendum to separate from the Danish Crown and then to establish a Republic, at midnight on May 23, 1944 in Reykjavik, giving 19° 52 Scorpio rising. It is interesting to examine these two charts with respect to three critical events beginnig with the crash.

Event 1. The Icelandic banking system collapsed in September/October 2008, during the international financial crisis. This was a major shock to the system. A critical time was 4:00 pm on October 6, 2008 when the Prime Mininster addressed the nation, saying the nation was at risk of financial collapse and that emergency legislation had been passed in the Parliament to protect the customers of the banks. He signed off with the statement "God Bless Iceland." In the months that followed, the unemployment rate rose from 1 percent to almost 10 percent.

Event 2. Following the banking collapse, protests began to emerge in late October 2008. These intensified in early 2009 and had turned into riots in the second half of January 2009. The the center-right government resigned around noon time on January 26. A temporary left-of-center government was formed on February 1.

Event 3. On April 25, 2009, parliamentary elections were held and the left-of-center government received a majority and a mandate for reform. Since then a lot of effort has been put into resolving the after effects of the crisis. In 2009, the government was busy trying to solve the many difficult problems, including cutting expenditures, restoring the banking system and international payments system, negotiating with international creditors and their governments and dealing with the surge in defaults and bankruptcies of firms and households. For most of 2010, however, things have seemed to be at a standstill in many respects. Due to the environmental emphasis of the government, many large scale projects have been caught up in red tape and funding difficulties. Now, some 20 months into the 4 year term of the government, many companies have defaulted and households are burdened with reduced incomes and higher debts. While the unemployment rate is down to around 8 percent, it is mostly due to the emigration of 2-3 percent of the labour force to neigboring countries. The situation has become quite difficult for many and again protests have emerged. Moreover, the political tensions of opposing parties in parliament have increased. Last night, the tension produced mass protests that again look like the situation in early 2009, but now involving more people. While the situation remained manageable there was violence with rocks being thrown at the parliament building. The situation was on the verge of tipping into a full blown riot. The government insists it is managing the situation, but the tension is there.

Attached are the transits in both of the charts for these three major recent events. Let us now compare the period and transit dynamics in them.

Event 1. - Banks collapse on October 6, 2008

Ceremony - Virgo rising chart.
Saturn/Mercury period. Major period lord, natal 6th lord Saturn is conjunct natal 12th lord Sun and afflicts MEP of 10th, 12th, 4th and 7th houses. This suggests financial stability, conflict and health issues in the national life during this major period. In the sub-period of 1st lord Mercury in the 9th house, luck would be expected in the national life. [Even if everything is relative, this is the problem with this chart for these events]. Transit Rahu at 22° Cancer and 11th house, just ending its stationary placement at 24° Cancer, where it is conjunct 8th lord Mars, is consistent with signficant problems. Transit Saturn at 21° Leo and 12th house in aspect to sub-period lord natal 1st lord Mercury in 9th house. However. this aspect is not close enough, given the natal strength of Mercury. Transit 11th lord Jupiter at 19° Sagittarius and 4th house is, however, well placed and happy. Iceland managed to get through the banking collapse without major dislocations in the first months afterwards. Average fit.

Referendum - Scorpio rising chart.
Mercury/Mars period. Major period lord, Mercury, is 11th lord of income in the 6th house of conflict. Its dispositor, a debilitated Mars, is natally involved in a very difficult conjunction with Rahu in the 9th house. This natal combination is perhaps the strongest indication, including the bad placement of Mercury, for Iceland experiencing a major financial crisis with international ramifications. In particult, the Mars sub-period would be very difficult. Transit Rahu-Ketu in MEP of 3rd and 9th house is not helpful. Even if the nodes are not stationary, they are not helpful while in applying aspect. Transit 12th lord Venus in MEP of 12th house, from where it aspects the 6th house, further undermines the financial stability. Transit sub-period lord Mars as 6th lord in the 12th house under afflicting aspect from natal Mars, shows the very difficult time for financial stability. Very good fit.

Event 2. - Government falls on January 26, 2009.

Ceremony - Virgo rising chart.
Saturn/Mercury period. Major period lord, natal 6th lord Saturn is conjunct natal 12th lord Sun and afflicts MEP of 10th, 12th, 4th and 7th houses. This suggests financial stability, conflict and health issues in the national life during the Saturn major period. In the sub-period of 1st lord Mercury in the 9th house, luck would be expected in the national life. Transit Rahu at 15° Capricorn conjunct natal 12th lord Sun at 12° Capricorn and 5th house, would suggest problems for the government, more so with transit Moon and Jupiter also afflicted by these planets. Transit 8th lord Mars at 28° Sagittarius and 4th house afflicts natal 4th lord Jupiter at 29° Cancer and 11th house, undermining communal harmony. Transit Saturn at 27° Leo and 12th house is badly placed in house of losses, from where it aspects natal 2nd lord Venus at 29° Aquarius and 6th house of conflict. Iceland managed to get through the banking collapse without major civil uproar in the first months afterwards, but then all hell broke lose. Not good enough fit.

Referendum - Scorpio rising chart.
Mercury/Mars period. Major period lord, natal Mercury, is 11th lord of income in 6th house of conflict. Its dispositor, Mars as 6th lord of conflict, is involved in a difficult conjunction with Rahu in the 9th house, suggesting manipulation and conflict in a foreign context. The Mars sub-period is expected to be very difficult. Transit sub-period lord Mars as 6th lord of conflict is weak in old age in the 2nd house of communal harmony where it is in afflicting aspect to the 2nd lord Jupiter. Transit Rahu-Ketu are stationary in the MEP of the 3rd and 9th houses. While the situation remained very difficult, the strain began to die down after the nodes exited the MEP - coinciding with the change of government. Transit 12th lord Venus at 29° Aquarius and 4th house in opposition with 4th lord Saturn in the 10th house, suggesting strain on communal harmony. Transit 10th lord Sun in applying conjunction with transit Rahu. Very good fit.

Event 3. - Major protest on October 4, 2010.

Ceremony - Virgo rising chart.
Saturn/Ketu period. Major period lord, natal 6th lord Saturn is conjunct natal 12th lord Sun and afflicts MEP of 10th, 12th, 4th and 7th houses. This suggests financial stability is lost and becomes a major problem in the national life. In Ketu sub-period, things would be expected to get worse, especially as Ketu is in the MEP of the 5th house and harms especially the 11th house of income. Transit Ketu is now in the MEP of the 10th house, under an aspect of transit 6th lord Saturn. Transit 8th lord Mars at 19° Libra and 2nd house has been conjunct transit 2nd lord Venus at the time of the riots. Transit 6th lord Saturn and transit12th lord Sun were conjunct around 14° Virgo prior to the protest. Good fit.

Referendum - Scorpio rising chart.
Mercury/Rahu period. Major period lord, natal 11th lord Mercury, is in the 6th house. Its dispositor, natal 6th lord Mars, is involved in a difficult conjunction with FM Rahu in the 9th house. The Rahu sub-period would also be quite difficult. Transit Rahu-Ketu are now moving out of the MEP of 2nd and 8th houses. However, transit 6th lord Mars and transit 12th lord Venus are conjunct in the MEP of 12th house. With this aspect being shortlived, we could thus expect the sudden spike in tensions to recede rather quickly. Very good fit.

Conclusion
The Referendum - Scorpio rising chart is still outperforming the Ceremony - Virgo rising chart. Going forward we may note that in late 2010 and early 2011, transit Ketu will go stationary at around 8° 47' Gemini. In the Virgo rising chart this would be expected to be a difficult time for the government. However, in the Scorpio rising chart, less problems are expected at that time. Assuming it is the authentic chart, this should be considered the likelier outcome.

Friday, October 1, 2010

Whither the house system?

The whole sign house system, which has been used in Vedic astrology for thousands of years, was also used by Arabic astrologers as late as the 8th and 9th centuries AD. After Rome fell and Europe descended into the Dark Ages, the practice of astrology was lost in Europe, not least due to its active suppression by the Catholic Church from the 4th century. When astrology was rediscovered in Europe, more than five hundred years later, it was undermined by a lack of epistemic continuity. The knowledge was being recovered based on partial information as opposed to a vibrant practice. As the original horoscopic practices were apparently not well known by the new practitioners, the value of the whole sign house system for the correct attribution of planet, sign and house lordships in horoscopic astrology was not fully appreciated. Further, the recovery of this knowledge was being compounded by poor translations of early Greek texts from Arabic translations.

The Dark Ages was a period of chaos, destruction and rebuilding in Europe. It is generally thought to have started with the fall of the Roman Empire in the 5th Century (AD 476). The period ended with the appearance of stable Germanic kingdoms and the development of knights in the 9th Century (AD 800), giving rise to the Medieval Period and a cultural renaissance in Europe.

The role of Arabs in the culturual rebirth of Europe after the Dark Ages is widely understood. Astrology was likely brought to medieval Europe by the Moors at the close of the Dark Ages. This was a time when Islam had spread along the North African coast and across the Pillars of Hercules into Spain. The invasion of the "infidels" aroused a mighty reaction in the Christian kingdoms of France and Spain. Coming to the aid of Spanish kings, the king of the Francs, Charlemagne, helped stop the Islamic advance in Northern Spain in 801 AD. However, he could not expel them from the Iberian Peninsula and this became the task of the Catholic Church and the people of Spain during the ensuing centuries. Nevertheless, it appears that astrology had arrived with the Moors in Spain, and well before French and English warriors launched the Crusades in the 11th century with the blessings of the church.

The way in which Astrology was recovered in Europe in the Middle Ages is not known, but it was likely based on a translation of the work of Ptolemy from Arabic. Moreover, it seems the practice of using whole sign houses was abandoned at that juncture, with an unequal house system emerging in its place. This raises the legitimate question of what it was that changed the practices. According to Rob Hand of Project Hindsight it appears it was either a case of a mistranslation or misinterpretation of Ptolemy's 2nd century AD book, the Tetrabiblos. This shift is brought out in the following passage from The Horoscopic Astrology Blog.


"Early Arabic era astrologers working in Baghdad in the 8th and early 9th centuries such as Masha’allah and Abu ‘Ali al-Khayat used whole sign houses in their chart delineations. Then, at some point in the middle of the 9th century something changed and all of a sudden the quadrant style systems of house division started to be used topically, and this usage completely displaced the use of whole sign houses. [1]
According to Rob Hand, this shift "began with the commentators on Ptolemy.[2] It seems the translations at the time caused the confusion. This fact has been established with careful translations of Ptolemy's original work. The original shows no such confusion. Ptolemy, like the practitioners of his day, used whole sign house system. However, the emerging breed of astrologers medieval Europe could not know this. Based on a mistaken interpretation of Ptolemy’s poorly translated work they adopted a house system that was unequal and overlapped the signs. This had major adverse ramifications for the development of horoscopic astrology in the West.

According to Wikipedia, "as a general rule, medieval and Renaissance astrologers did not give themselves the trouble of reading the stars, but contented themselves with telling fortunes by faces. They practised chiromancy (also known as palmistry), and relied on afterwards drawing a horoscope to suit."[3] Moreover, rather than developing into a science of prediction, Western astrology became a complement to scientific advances in astronomy, before being shunted aside as superstition during the Age of Enlightenment.

Auspiciously, the practice of an authentic form of horoscopic astrology survived in Vedic astrology and more importantly is now helping to correct the mistaken foundations of Western astrology.

However, more is need to address the general lack of predictive efficacy using Western astrology and its methods. While fine Western astrologers are able to make correct predictions, with an emphasis on planetary aspects, experience shows that it is generally less effective in prediction of the nature and timing of events than the horoscopic astrology of the Vedas. The key argument to explain this is that the tropical zodiac, as a basis of Western astrology, is also a
historical mistake and essentially wrong. Importantly, due to an excessive emphasis on the sun sign at the expense of the rising sign and along with the overlapping and complicated house divisions, Western astrology lacks an effective horoscopic astrology, based on the whole-sign house system and a proper attribution of sign and planet rulership by house. Additionally, there is an excessive use of outer solar system bodies which clouds the assessment. The indiscriminate use of aspects and a general lack of appreciation for the important role of prediction in astrology, linked to the ongoing failures to predict with Western astrology, has failed to establish a scientific basis for astrology, and caused it to be shunned and deplored in scientific circles. Importantly, given this state of affairs, those trained in Western astrology labour at a disadvantage compared to Vedic astrologers in making accurate predictions and correctly interpreting horoscopes. We can only hope that astrology of the 21st century in the West will soon be reformed on the basis of first and best principles and that its delayed real renaissance in the West is at hand at last.

References
[1] Brennan, Chris (2007). "Whole Sign Houses". The Horoscopic Astrology Blog.
http://horoscopicastrologyblog.com/2007/06/10/whole-sign-houses
[2] Hand, Rob (2000). "Whole Sign Houses, The Oldest House System". Arhat Publications.
http://www.astrologycritics.com/whole-sign-houses-the-oldest-house-system.html
[3] Wikipedia: History of astrology.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_astrology

Tuesday, September 28, 2010

Karma cures the economy

Today, US policy makers are trying to revitalise a banking system that collapsed and an economy that has tanked. Since 2007, the authorities have injected huge amounts of funds into the banking system and economy in the hope of reflating the system and getting the economy moving again. A consensus seems to be that these efforts have helped but are not enough to return the economy to robust growth. Many predict that it will take the economy many years to recover. Based on an analysis of major planetary periods in the SAMVA USA chart, this article reveals why this is necessarily so and why the present dilemma is an echo of the dialogue during the final decades of the 1890s. Importantly, the problems where finally resolved with the onset of the Sun major period in 1896. The Sun period ushered in the Progressive Era and a social consensus to invigorate industrial production based on the gold standard. The secret ingredient making this possible was the national karma seen in the chart. The Sun period was accompanied by technological advances and increases in gold production that finally allowed the economy to push forward. A similar auspicious turning point in US history is expected in the year 2016.

Current debate
Leading economists identified with the policies of the Democratic party, including Nobel prize winner Paul Krugman, suggest the US should deal with its problems by reflating the economy by printing more money and thus allowing inflation to rise.[1] Such remedies could help the government, firms and households to reduce their debts, which are hampering a recovery and keeping unemployment high. However, at the same time, a rise in inflation would also harm the owners of financial wealth, including creditors and pension savers, and those receiving a nominal monetary income. This is because the purchasing power of assets and incomes is eroded with inflation. Failing to heed this advice, to reflate the economy with an inflation tax, the story goes, the government risks continued difficult times and a slow process of defaults due to the high debts preventing a timely recovery in the economy.

Echoes of the past
The present dialogue echoes the US political dialogue of the 1880s and 1890s. During the so-called Gilded Age, easy money policies of the so-called bimetallists clashed with the hard money policies of those favouring the gold standard. Today, we have the same easy vs. hard money debate, albeit the US dollar is no longer linked to the price of gold. The Federal Reserve now manages the amount of money in the financial system through its monetary policy operations.

SAMVA USA horoscope
An authentic horoscope for the USA was discovered only a few years ago. The SAMVA USA chart makes it possible to accurately interpret not only the nature of the collective entity that is the USA in terms of the natal potential seen in the horoscope, but also the dynamics of the horoscope with respect to evolving trends and events of any given time in US history. More importantly, an authentic horoscope allows us to predict the broad themes and the types of significant events that are likely to be prominent in future national affairs. The major and minor trends in history are read from the 120 year Vimsottari dasa-bukhti cycle of major and sub-periods. The planetary periods offer insight into the evolution of issues at the heart of the national debate. Meanwhile, significant events can be seen through an analysis of transits in the chart. Importantly, the functional nature of each planet, determined by the house in which its moolatrikona sign resides, is crucial, along with the planets general nature, for a reading of its indications. The planet‘s sign and house placement, along with any interactions by aspect with other planets or sensitive points is important for the accurate interpretation of its expression in the national life.

120 year Vimsottari period cycle
The US has general elections every two years to choose a part of the members representing the population in the US Congress. Every other General Election, or every four years, the President of the USA is also elected. During such elections, the national debate reaches a crescendo, with the party and President being elected that somehow captures the popular imagination. The issues involved are normally recorded for posterity making a comparison of past trends with present ones possible. Of course, the transits of planets in a given sub-period of over 120 years ago will be quite different from the ones in the same sub-period at the present time. As such, we would expect the emphasis to be slightly different, in part due to different significant events. That said, we would expect some singular undercurrent of popular thought to be very similar. In this article, we compare the history of economic policy in two identical planetary periods involving the planet Venus and its nine sub-periods lasting from 1876 to 1896 and again, 120 years later, from 1996 to 2016. The focus is here on the economic policy of these two periods, notably the role of monetary policy and inflation. It will be shown that despite the government being confronted with different events and challenges, there was a fundamental similarity in economic tensions. In particular, once the veneer of historicity has been stripped off, the similarities that emerge are quite breathtaking. The analysis leads us to the prediction that we can expect ongoing economic concerns until 2016, when the fortunes are expected to change with the onset of the Sun period. However, first let us go over two basic issues related to inflation, i.e. the dollar and gold.

History of the US dollar
In 1775, the United States and the individual states began issuing "Continental Currency" denominated in Spanish pesos and (for the issues of the states) the British Pound of the state's currencies. The continental currency suffered from printing press inflation due to lack of coordination in monetary policy between Congress and the States. Benjamin Franklin also described how British sabotage during the Revolutionary war contributed to the debasement of the currency such that it ceased to circulate in May 1781 after it had become worthless.[2] It was replaced by the silver dollar at the rate of 1 silver dollar = 1000 continental dollars. At its inception as a Union of thirteen States based on a Confederation type of government in 1781, the USA was only a minor trading power. Following the ratification of its new constitution, the U.S. Constitution, in 1789, the government began operation. In 1792, the US "dollar" was established and pegged to the Spanish Empire's 8-real peso ("piece of eight"), a large silver coin.[3] America continued to accept Spanish-American pesos as late as 1857.

In 1834, the US Congress set up a "bimetallic" system, based on both silver and gold where 1 ounce (troy) of gold was valued at $20.67 while 1 ounce (troy) of silver was valued at $1.29, at a fixed conversion rate to gold, at 1/16 of an ounce. The 1/16 ratio was abandoned in 1873, when huge deposits of silver were discovered and mined. In 1878, however, as a subsidy for politically influential silver producers, the Bland-Allison Act required the government to buy a limited amount of silver ($2,000,000 to $4,000,000 a month) at $1.29 per ounce and coin it. This compromise bimetallism, the so-called "limping standard," was replaced by a gold standard in 1900.

A US promise to redeem foreign-bank dollars in gold at $35/ounce formed the basis of the Bretton Woods Agreement (1944) for fixed foreign exchange rates. The Bretton-Woods system collapsed in the early 1970s, partly because continued US inflation made gold convertibility unworkable.[3] Since that time, the US dollar has been a fiat currency and as such freely floating on international foreign exchange markets. During the floating dollar era, the dollar’s value has been quite volatile viz-à-viz other currencies but enjoyed popular acceptance as a transaction, pricing, vehicle and reserve currency internationally. At the same time, as gold is no longer the standard of value, the onus is on the Federal Reserve to restrain its printing of money to prevent its excess quantity from causing inflation .

Gold production
The first significant gold rush in the United States was in Cabarrus County, North Carolina (east of Charlotte), in 1799 at today's Reed's Gold Mine. Thirty years later, in 1829, the Georgia Gold Rush in the southern Appalachians occurred. It was followed by the California Gold Rush of 1848–52 in the Sierra Nevada, which captured the popular imagination. The California gold rush led directly to the settlement of California by Americans and the rapid entry of that state into the union in 1850. Successive gold rushes occurred in western North America, moving north and east from California: Fraser Canyon, the Cariboo district and other parts of British Columbia, and the Rocky Mountains. One of the last "great gold rushes" was the Klondike Gold Rush in Canada's Yukon Territory (1898–99). It helped open up the relatively new US possession of Alaska to exploration and settlement and promoted the discovery of other gold finds there.[4] The gold production in the USA skyrocketed as a result. Monetary policy, the printing of money, was tied to gold. The discoveries at the middle of the 19th century did little more than allow gold production to keep pace with the expanding economic activity and a sharply growing population. Aside from an explosion in spending on arms, the Civil War of the 1860s had a devastating influence on the economy. It was followed by the reconstruction spending of the post-war period. Nevertheless, it is clear that during the remainder of the century, gold production did not keep pace with the needs of the economy and deflation, instead of inflation, emerged. In turn, deflation had an influence to constrain economic activity.

Inflation
In the second half of the 19th century, after a period of inflation (rising prices) following the Civil War and the Reconstruction period, the US experienced deflation (falling prices). This has been linked to the Long Depression from 1873 to 1896, when the US was on a gold standard and gold production did not keep pace with the monetary needs of a growing economy.

Astrology of the Venus period
As Venus is 4th lord of the SAMVA USA chart its indications of communal harmony, fixed assets and natural resources come to the fore. Venus is also general indicator of comforts and luxuries in life. Importantly, Venus is badly placed and weak in the 6th house of conflict, financial stability and health. This suggests that problems are to be expected for the indications of Venus of the nature of the indications of the 6th house. A weak planet cannot promote its indications and is vulnerable to setbacks when transits turn adverse. Indeed, financial stability issues and conflict were a major part of the political debate during the first Venus period (1876-1896) in the SAMVA USA chart. The unequal distribution of income and wealth was at the root of the malcontentment of the period. Not surprisingly, the same issues have come to haunt in the second Venus period (1996-2016).

1888 election themes
“The annexing and subdividing of the Dakota Territory into states … was a major issue of the election”. Conflict over land is clearly an indication of Venus as 4th lord. Harrison's opponent, “Cleveland was the leader of the pro-business Bourbon Democrats who opposed high tariffs, free silver, inflation, imperialism and subsidies to business, farmers or veterans. His battles for political reform and fiscal conservatism made him an icon for American conservatives… Cleveland took strong positions and in turn took heavy criticism”.[5] Importantly, Cleveland lost the election. His message was not yet ripe for the country. “The Republicans nominated Harrison, because of his war record, his popularity with veterans, his ability to express the Republican Party's views, and the fact that he lived in Indiana.” Harrison seemed to embody qualities linked to Jupiter as 6th lord of conflict being the sub-period lord at the time. “Harrison’s administration is most remembered for economic legislation, including the McKinley Tariff and the Sherman Antitrust Act, and for annual federal spending that reached one billion dollars for the first time…He also saw the admittance of six states into the Union.” [6] The legislation was intended to protect America's interest in international trade but also to restrict the rampant exploitation of the Robber Barons.

1892 election themes

Cleveland came back to wrest the election from Harrison. “Democrats attacked the "Billion Dollar Congress", and used the issue, along with the growing unpopularity of the high tariff, to defeat the Republicans, both in the 1890 mid-term elections and in Harrison's bid for re-election in 1892.” Still, Cleveland's hard money policies met great resistance. "In the Great Plains and the South, grain and cotton farmers, suffering from falling crop prices, demanded currency inflation to raise prices. “As Democrats convened in Chicago in June 1892, Cleveland was the front-runner for the nomination but faced formidable opposition. He had come out against the free coinage of silver, thereby earning the enmity of western and southern Democrats. Most damaging of all was the opposition of his home state; the New York delegation, packed with Tammany men, frequently demonstrated their hostility to Cleveland's candidacy on the convention floor.” By 1892 a Populist party had also appeared, to call for free coinage of silver to achieve this goal. President Cleveland resisted, stating that such a monetary policy would destroy confidence, prolong the recession, and injure city consumers." “Although the Cleveland forces preferred Isaac P. Gray of Indiana for vice president, they accepted the convention favorite, Adlai E. Stevenson of Illinois. As a supporter of using greenbacks and free silver to inflate the currency and alleviate economic distress in the rural districts, Stevenson balanced the ticket headed by Cleveland, the hard-money, gold-standard supporter” [6] Interestingly, the sub-period of Mercury was operating, and as 3rd lord of enterprise and commerce an emphasis was on business friendly policies, including "responsible" monetary policy associated with the gold standard. However, this also ensured continued economic malaise, the source of anger among the silver coinage supporters. “Cleveland’s intervention in the Pullman Strike of 1894 to keep the railroads moving angered labor unions nationwide and angered the party in Illinois; his support of the gold standard and opposition to free silver alienated the agrarian wing of the Democratic Party”.

1896 election themes
“By the 1880s, McKinley was a national Republican leader; his signature issue was high tariffs on imports as a formula for prosperity, as typified by his McKinley Tariff of 1890. As the Republican candidate in the 1896 presidential election, he upheld the gold standard, and promoted pluralism among ethnic groups. His campaign, designed by Mark Hanna, introduced new advertising-style campaign techniques that revolutionized campaign practices and beat back the crusading of his arch-rival, William Jennings Bryan. The 1896 election is often considered a realigning election that marked the beginning of the Progressive Era.”[7] In 1896, the Democrats, taken over by southern and western inflationists, ran William Jennings Bryan on a free silver platform. Ethnic voters surged into the Republican ranks-for the depression was a disastrous one and the Republican party had always urged active government intervention to stimulate the economy".[9] In addition, as city dwellers they feared inflation. The Republicans combined the bimetallism issue with the tariff question and promised a return to prosperity, social order, and morality. They argued that inflation caused by free coinage of silver would create a "53-cent dollar" that would rob the workingman of his buying. William McKinley's election began a long period of one-party (Republican) domination in the northern states and in Washington. Fitting with the Sun major period having begun, “McKinley did win, and his policies of promoting pluralism, industrial growth, and the gold standard determined national policies for two decades”. McKinley won again in the 1900 election, but was assassinated in 1901, when Theodore Roosevelt, his Vice President, became President, earning a place in history as a strong leader.


The national karma
By the late 19th century the U.S. had completed its "Westward expansion." The country had also been suffering from demand side problems in the economy since "the Panic of 1873" and through the three years of recession following "the 1893 Depression". This period has been termed "The Long Depression".[9] The spell was not really broken until 1896, when monetary expansion surged ahead, helped by the increased gold production in the latter half of the 1890s and early 1900s. In the famous work of Milton Friedman and Anna J. Schwarts on the monetary history of the United States, the following statement is fascinating in this regard

"The final years of the [19th] century saw a dramatic reversal of economic conditions. The stock of money had fluctuated about roughly a constant level from 1892 to 1897, in June 1896 it was lower than in June 1892, in June 1897 about the same as in June 1892. From then on it rebounded upward at an extraordinary rate...to 1902 - a cumulative increase of 80 per cent in five years."[10]
This was made possible with the sudden surge in gold production and the continued hard money policies of the national leaders. Not surprisingly, it was during the six year Sun major period in the SAMVA USA chart from 1896 to 1902 that the national conditions improved significantly. It is not a coincidence that such a mighty rebound occurred in gold production and hence monetary and economic conditions during this period, as these are a key indications of the Sun. A similar fate likely awaits the US in coming years. Like the very best astrologers, modern day bimetallists, like Paul Krugman, are likely right, a full recovery will be slow in coming given the present monetary and fiscal policy stance. That said, while we know that a favourable karma will manifest some years from now, we do not know exactly how it will do so as the USA is no longer on a gold standard and the modern economy is much different from the economy of the late 19th century. However, a major improvement will come.

Post scriptum
Author & astrologer V. K. Choudhry has made the following comment with respect to this article:
"Some improvement in the economy is likely in the Mercury sub period of Venus main period between 18th April, 2012, to 18th February, 2015. Lot of new and global enterprising activity is likely. It is likely to be rewarding though being volatile."
In this regard, a review of the last Mercury major period may be helpful. At the same time it is recalled that the Mercury sub-period, although important for the shorter term trend, is operating within the context of the longer term trend set during the Venus major period. In the earlier Venus-Mercury period (April 18, 1892- February 18, 1895), a stock market panic on May 5, 1893 started a mini depression which lasted until 1896, linked to difficult transits at the time. The article is focused on the shift of major trends from the Gilded Age associated with the Venus major period to the Progressive Era which began with the Sun major period. A similar major trend shift is expected around 2016.

Sources
[1] Krugman, Paul (2010). “Default Is In Our Stars”. September 25. New York Times.
http://krugman.blogs.nytimes.com/2010/09/25/default-is-in-our-stars/?src=twt&twt=NytimesKrugman
[2] The Continental Currency
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Continental_(currency)#Continental_currency
[3] The History of the Dollar
http://www.cyberussr.com/hcunn/gold-std.html
[4] Gold mining in Alaska
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gold_mining_in_Alaska
[5] Grover Cleveland
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grover_Cleveland
[6] Benjamin Harrison
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benjamin_Harrison
[7] William McKinley
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_McKinley
[8] The US Presidential election of 1892
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_presidential_election,_1892
[9] The Depression of 1893
http://eh.net/encyclopedia/article/whitten.panic.1893
[10] Friedman, Milton and Anna J. Schwarts (1963). A Monetary History of the United States, 1867-1960. Princeton University Press, Princeton.